Definitions

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Neighbourhood

refers to an inhabited area delineated by social and physical boundaries. ONS neighbourhood boundaries were derived based on census tracts, physical and demographic similarities, physical barriers (e.g. waterways, highways, etc.), maps used by the real estate profession (e.g. the Ottawa Multiple Listing Service), consultations with community stakeholders, as well as fieldwork by ONS researchers. 1

Population

refers to a group of individuals specified by their geographic location (e.g. neighbourhood) and/or affiliations (e.g. ethnicity).

Access to Food

Bars and nightclubs

refer to establishments that are often open late with the primary purpose of serving alcoholic beverages. In particular, bars (e.g. taverns, pubs, sports bars) tend to offer a limited menu, while nightclubs (e.g. discotheques, cocktail lounges, cabarets, clubs) generally offer some form of live entertainment and\or dancing. 2

Community garden

refers to a garden, often located on a re-designated piece of land, that is tended to collectively by a group of local residents.

Convenience store

refers to a store that is often open long hours and generally offers a limited selection of food and non-food related convenience items such as milk, bread, soft drinks, snacks, tobacco products, newspapers and magazines, and in many instances lottery services. Also refers to a convenience store within a gas station. 2

Farmer’s market

refers to a local market, most often held in an outdoor public space, where farmers can sell their produce directly to consumers. Depending on the market, business hours vary from daily to bi-weekly.

Fast food outlet

refers to an establishment where customers generally order and pay for prepared food (e.g. burgers, fries, pizza, shawarma, fried chicken, coffee and other non-alcoholic beverages) in advance at a counter or over the phone. The food is expected to be provided in a timely manner and can be either consumed on the premises, readied for take-out or delivered to a location selected by the customer. 2

Good Food Box

refers to a non-profit community-based initiative bringing neighbours together to buy local, seasonal fruits and vegetables as a group at wholesale prices.

Grocery Store

also known as a supermarket, it refers to a store where the primary food lines include products such as canned, dry and frozen foods; fresh fruits and vegetables; fresh and prepared meats, fish, poultry, dairy products, baked products and snack foods. Other non-food household products are also sold (e.g. cleaning supplies, cookware, toiletries, and non-prescription drugs). 2

Mobile food cart

refers to a vendor offering prepared food (e.g. burgers, fries, soups, sandwiches) served from a motorized vehicle or non-motorized cart. 2

Restaurant

refers to an establishment where customers are seated at a table, orders are taken by a server, food is brought to the table, and meals are paid for after eating. Some restaurants also operate a bar and\or provide take-out services. Diners, family restaurants, and haute cuisine are examples of establishments considered as restaurants. 2

Specialty food store

refers to a store that offers food lines which are typically more specialized than is found in a grocery store. The food lines can be specialized culturally (e.g. Indian grocer) or by focusing on certain foods (e.g. butcher, bulk food). There is often little or no selection of non-food household products offered in these stores. 2

Access to Schools

Adult/alternative high school

refer to educational institutions geared to individuals for whom a traditional high school education is\was not possible. In particular, adult high schools are open to students 21 years old or older; alternative high schools are open to students 16 years old and over who are either currently in school but not benefiting from the program or dropped out and wish to return.

Elementary school

also known as a primary school, it refers to an educational institution that administers the initial level of standardized academic instruction. In Ontario, an elementary education (including middle school) generally lasts ten years extending from junior kindergarten (ages 4-5) through to grade 8 (ages 13-14). French, English, public, and catholic school boards are represented here.

High school

also known as a secondary school, it refers to an educational institution that administers the second level of standardized academic instruction. In Ontario, a high school education generally lasts four years extending from grade 9 (ages 14-15) through to grade 12 (ages 17-18). French, English, public, and catholic school boards are represented here.

Private school

refers to a privately funded elementary or secondary school that operates independently of the Ministry of Education. Private schools often charge tuition and establish their own qualifications and criteria for their teaching staff.

Age & Population

Age

refers to the age of a person (or subject) of interest at last birthday (or relative to a specified, well-defined reference date). 3

Female

refers to persons who reported being female. 3

Male

refers to persons who reported being male. 3

Senior

refers to an age classification that includes individuals who are 65 years of age and older. 3

Civic Engagement

Registered voter

refers to a resident/citizen who is listed on an election registry. To qualify as a registered voter in a City of Ottawa municipal election on voting day an individual must be a resident or have an address in the city, a Canadian citizen, and at least 18 years old. 4

Voting rates

refers to the percentage of registered voters who voted in the 2010 Municipal Elections. 4

Mobility status (past year)

Refers to the status of a person with regard to the place of residence on the reference day, May 10, 2011, in relation to the place of residence on the same date one year earlier. Persons who have not moved are referred to as non-movers and persons who have moved from one residence to another are referred to as movers. Movers include non-migrants and migrants. Non-migrants are persons who did move but remained in the same city, town, township, village or Indian reserve. Migrants include internal migrants who moved to a different city, town, township, village or Indian reserve within Canada. External migrants include persons who lived outside Canada at the earlier reference date. 3

Mobility status (past 5 years)

Refers to the status of a person with regard to the place of residence on the reference day, May 10, 2011, in relation to the place of residence on the same date five years earlier. Persons who have not moved are referred to as non-movers and persons who have moved from one residence to another are referred to as movers. Movers include non-migrants and migrants. Non-migrants are persons who did move but remained in the same city, town, township, village or Indian reserve. Migrants include internal migrants who moved to a different city, town, township, village or Indian reserve within Canada. External migrants include persons who lived outside Canada at the earlier reference date. 3

Community Resources/Services

Aboriginal resource centre

refers to a location that provides different services specifically directed towards the Aboriginal community in Ottawa – this includes Aboriginal women, men, youth, families and individuals.

Alternative financial resource

refers to a financial resource such as a payday loan, cash chequing, or cash advance store, as well as a pawn shop.

Child care programs

refer to licensed child care programs that are offered in centres. These programs are licensed by the Ministry of Education and must meet specific provincial standards that provide for the health, safety and developmental needs of children. 4

Community Health and Resource Centre

refers to a multi-service, community-based health and resource centre, which recognizes the importance of responding to the diversity of needs within local communities and pay particular attention to those members of the community who are most vulnerable and at risk. 5

Defibrillator

refers to a device used to control heart fibrillations and restore normal heartbeat by applying a short electrical current to the chest or heart.

Dentist

refers to an individual dentist (not an office) operating within the City of Ottawa; does not refer to an orthodontist or an oral surgeon.

Employment service

includes any employment service offered in Ottawa such as a placement agency, co-op office or any other government and private employment office.

Francophone service

includes different types of services for youth, men, women, families, individuals, and people looking for work, directed towards the francophone community in Ottawa.

Healthy financial resource

refers to a financial resource such as a bank, credit union, financial planner, investment house, mortage broker, insurance broker, or insurance company.

Immigrant service

represents a service for immigrants coming to Ontario. Included are housing opportunities, employment opportunities, schools, language schools, religious centres, ethnic centres, and government offices for people moving to Ontario for the first time needing IDs, health cards, driver’s license, etc.

Library

refers to any branch of the Ottawa Public library.

Mental health service

refers to any mental health establishment included in the definitions of the different types of mental health services offered in Ontario (see http://www.mentalhealthhelpline.ca/Search/ServiceTypes) located within the City of Ottawa.

Needle drop box

refers to any location within the City of Ottawa’s boundaries where used needles, syringes, crack pipes (glass stems) and other sharps can be returned and disposed of. 4

Optometrist

refers to an optometrist in Ottawa, not including opthomologists or eye surgeons.

Park & Ride

refers to a parking lot location where people can park their vehicle and take the bus.

Pharmacy

refers to an establishment that offers both prescribed and over-the-counter medication.

Physician

refers to a family doctor in Ottawa with their own practice, not including surgeons or specialists. Some doctors work out of home offices while others work out of office complexes. Many offices included in the data set have more than one physician practicing out of it.

Youth service

refers to any youth service, such as a group home, employment opportunity, mental health service, and recreation.

Demographics (Education & Labour)

Bachelor’s degree (highest)

This category includes persons who have obtained a bachelor’s degree awarded by a degree-granting institution and who have not obtained any higher degrees, certificates or diplomas. It includes for example, Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Science, and Bachelor of Law. 3

Certificate, diploma or degree

This category includes persons who have obtained any certificates, diplomas or degrees, or their equivalents. 3

Children Low in at least 1 domain in 2009

refers to children in the neighbourhood who scored low in at least one of the EDI domains. 6

Children Low in 2 or more domains in 2009

refers to children in the neighbourhood who scored low in two or more of the EDI domains. 6

Children Low in at least 1 domain in 2006

refers to children in the neighbourhood who scored low in at least one of the EDI domains. 6

Children Low in 2 or more domains in 2006

refers to children in the neighbourhood who scored low in two or more of the EDI domains. 6

College

persons with non-university certificate or diploma from a community college, CEGEP, school of nursing. 3

College, CEGEP or other non-university

This category includes persons who obtained a postsecondary certificate or diploma from a community college; a CEGEP (either general/pre-university or technical ); an institute of technology; a school of nursing; a private business school; a private or public trade school; or a vocational school. Included in this category are persons who obtained a teaching or nursing certificate awarded by a provincial department of education, with the exception of teachers’ or nurse’s qualifications at the bachelor level or above obtained at university-affiliated faculty of education or nursing. Persons with an apprenticeship or trades certificate and no other college, CEGEP or other postsecondary and non-university certificate or diploma are excluded from this category. Persons with university certificates diplomas or degrees are also excluded from this category. 3

Commute duration

refers to the travel of an employed person between his or her place of residence and his or her place of work. Commute can be measured as a length of time, that is, as a duration. This refers to the number of minutes it usually takes the person to travel from home to work.

Degree in medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine or optometry (highest)

This category includes persons who have obtained degrees in medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine or optometry granted by a degree-granting institution. This category excludes persons who have also obtained a master’s degree or an earned doctorate. 3

Earned doctorate (highest)

This category refers to persons who have obtained a doctorate degree awarded by a university. This includes, for example, Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) and Doctor of Juridical Science (SJD). It does not include persons who have received an honorary doctorate unless they were also awarded a doctorate on the basis of educational attainment at a university.3

EDI (Early Development Instrument)

refers to a an early child development questionnaire which assesses the degree to which a child is ready to learn at school and predicts how well they will do in school. The test is completed by kindergarden teachers for all children in their classes about 5 months into the school year. The EDI measures five core areas of early child development that are good predictors of adult health, education and social outcomes: 1) Physical health and well-being; 2) Social competence; 3) Emotional maturity; 4) Language and cognitive development; and 5) Communication skills and general knowledge. 6

Educational attainment

Measures an individual’s highest level of completed schooling, and is sometimes used as a proxy measure of human capital. 3

Employed

This category includes persons who, during the reference period:

  • Did any work at all at a job or business, that is, paid work in the context of an employer-employee relationship, or self-employment. It also includes persons who did unpaid family work, which is defined as unpaid work contributing directly to the operation of a farm, business or professional practice owned and operated by a related member of the same household; or
  • Had a job but were not at work due to factors such as their own illness or disability, personal or family responsibilities, vacation or a labour dispute. This category excludes persons not at work because they were on layoff or between casual jobs, and those who did not then have a job (even if they had a job to start at a future date).

Employment status

refers to whether a person was employed, unemployed or not in the labour force during the reference period. The labour force consists of persons who contribute or are available to contribute to the production of goods and services falling within the System of National Accounts production boundary.3

Full-time/part-time enrolment

Enrolment in programs of 25 weeks or more is identified as full time, while enrolment in programs of 24 weeks or less is considered part time. A large portion of the in-class training for apprenticeship programs is structured in study blocks of four to eight weeks, and would be classified as part time, even though the length of the apprenticeship program itself may be from two to five years. However, some jurisdictions, notably Ontario, identified the total weeks of in-class training over the whole apprenticeship period, and as a result, a large portion of the registered apprenticeship enrolments are included in the full-time data rather than the part-time. Full-time enrolment includes, for example, most of the pre-employment/pre-apprenticeship programs and some of the longer programs in academic upgrading, language and job readiness training. Part-time enrolment includes, in addition to the registered apprenticeship programs, most of the programs in skill-upgrading, orientation, job readiness and special training. 3

High school

high school graduates with no further education, or with some postsecondary education, but with no degree, certificate or diploma. Trade-vocational: persons with a trades certificate or diploma from a vocational or apprenticeship training. 3

Less than high school

persons who did not graduate from high school. 3

Master’s degree (highest)

This category includes persons who have obtained a master’s degree awarded by a degree-granting institution. This includes, for example, a Master of Arts (MA), Master of Science (MSc) or Master of Divinity (MD). This category excludes persons who have obtained an earned doctorate. 3

Mode of transportation

refers to the main mode of transportation a respondent uses to travel between his or her home and his or her place of work. 3

No certificate, diploma or degree

This category includes persons who have not obtained any certificates, diplomas or degrees or their equivalents. 3

Not in the labour force

refers to persons who were neither employed nor unemployed during the reference period. This includes persons who, during the reference period were either unable to work or unavailable for work. It also includes persons who were without work and who had neither actively looked for work in the past four weeks nor had a job to start within four weeks of the reference period.

Post Secondary

Postsecondary education refers to those whose highest level of educational attainment is an apprenticeship or trades certificate or diploma (including ‘centres de formation professionnelle’); college, CEGEP or other non-university certificate or diploma; university certificate or diploma below bachelor level; or a university degree (bachelor’s degree; university certificate or diploma above bachelor level; degree in medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine or optometry; master’s degree; earned doctorate).3

Pre-employment/pre-apprenticeship programs

Provide basic training in a particular trade, offering entry-level skills for employment. These programs also offer the knowledge and skills required to enter an apprenticeship program. 3

Registered apprenticeship programs

A program based on a contract registered with the province/territory, between the apprentice and the employer, in which the employer agrees to provide an opportunity to obtain the experience and skill required for a trade. Programs vary in length from two to five years, depending on the trade. Registered apprenticeship combines on-the-job experience with six- to eight-week periods of in-class training. In most jurisdictions, the in-class portion is usually taken at a postsecondary institution during the apprenticeship training. In Quebec, however, the in-class training is taken prior to beginning the apprenticeship program. Depending on the jurisdiction and trade, graduates of apprenticeship programs can receive both a Certificate of Apprenticeship and a Certificate of Qualification.3

Secondary Schools (e.g High Schools)

Include public, private and federal schools, and schools for the visually and hearing impaired. Schools are classified as secondary if they offer either Grade 7 and over, or a majority of years at the secondary level. 3

Secondary Schools Diploma or Equivalent

This category includes persons who have obtained a secondary or high school certificate or its equivalent and who have not obtained any higher degrees, certificates or diplomas. Secondary school diploma or equivalent includes academic or vocational high school diplomas or certificates as may be obtained by graduating from secondary school. It also includes successfully completing a high school equivalency test such as the General Educational Development (GED) test, or obtaining an Adult Basic Education (ABE) certificate where it is equivalent to the completion of secondary school. Persons who obtained a Secondary School Vocational Diploma (SSVD) or Diplôme d’études professionnelles (DEP) or any postsecondary certificate diploma or degree are excluded from this category. 3

Time leaving for work

refers to the time at which a respondent usually leaves home to go to work. 3

Trades

There are approximately 170 registered trades in Canada, each with specific standards and training requirements as set down by each province and territory. Provinces designate each trade as “compulsory” or “voluntary”. In order to work in a compulsory trade an individual must either be registered as an apprentice or have the proper certification through completion of apprenticeship training. Voluntary trades also have apprenticeship programs, but registration as an apprentice or certification is not mandatory in order to work in the trade.3

Trade-vocational enrolment (by registration status)

Covers students enrolled in the in-class portion of apprenticeship programs, pre-employment/pre-apprenticeship programs, academic and skill upgrading programs, language training, job readiness and orientation to work programs and special training. Trade-vocational enrolments only show enrolments reported by publicly-funded postsecondary institutions in Canada; enrolments in private post-secondary training institutes are not included. 3

Trade-vocational programs

Trade-vocational programs at community colleges and similar institutions are those that do not require secondary school completion and do not include continuing education or general interest programs. They include the following programs: 3

Unemployed

includes persons who during the reference period:

  • Were without work but had looked for work in the past four weeks ending with the reference period and were available for work; or
  • Were on temporary layoff due to business conditions and were available for work; or
  • Were without work, had a job to start within four weeks from the reference period and were available for work. 3

University

includes persons with a bachelors degree, university degree or certificate above bachelors, or certificate below bachelors degree. 3

University certificate or diploma above bachelor level (highest)

includes persons who have obtained, through a degree-granting institution, a certificate or diploma that usually requires a Bachelor’s degree as a prerequisite. This category excludes persons who have also obtained any of the following: 1) degree in medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine or optometry; 2) master’s degree or 3) earned doctorate. 3

University certificate or diploma below the bachelor level

includes persons who have obtained a university certificate or diploma below the bachelor level and who have not obtained any higher degrees, certificates or diplomas. University certificates or diplomas are normally connected with professional associations in fields such as accounting, banking, insurance or public administration. The certificates and diplomas referred to in this category do not require a bachelor’s degree as a prerequisite. 3

University certificate or diploma or degree at bachelor level or above (highest)

includes persons who have obtained a university (level) certificate or diploma or a degree from a degree-granting institution. This includes persons who obtained a bachelor’s degree, a master’s degree, a degree in medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine or optometry or an earned doctorate. If a bachelor’s degree is normally a prerequisite for a university certificate or diploma course, as may occur with teaching certificates, then persons who obtained that certificate or diploma are included here.3

Work activity in 2010

refers to whether or not a person worked in 2010. 3

  • Did any work at all at a job or business, that is, paid work in the context of an employer-employee relationship, or self-employment. It also includes persons who did unpaid family work, which is defined as unpaid work contributing directly to the operation of a farm, business or professional practice owned and operated by a related member of the same household; or
  • Had a job but were not at work due to factors such as their own illness or disability, personal or family responsibilities, vacation or a labour dispute. This category excludes persons not at work because they were on layoff or between casual jobs, and those who did not then have a job (even if they had a job to start at a future date).3

More information…

  • The 2011 National Household Survey (NHS) provides information on the labour market activities of the Canadian population aged 15 and over living in private households.
  • The survey excludes persons living in institutional collective dwellings such as hospitals, nursing homes and penitentiaries; Canadian citizens living in other countries and full-time members of the Canadian Forces stationed outside Canada. Also excluded are persons living in non-institutional collective dwellings such as work camps, hotels and motels, and student residences.
  • The reference period used to determine labour force status refers to the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2011.
  • Click here for a diagram further explaining the population and components of the labour force (a new window will open). 3

Demographics (Families & Households)

Census family

is defined as a married couple and the children, if any, of either or both spouses; a couple living common law and the children, if any, of either or both partners; or, a lone parent of any marital status with at least one child living in the same dwelling and that child or those children. All members of a particular census family live in the same dwelling. A couple may be of opposite or same sex. Children may be children by birth, marriage or adoption regardless of their age or marital status as long as they live in the dwelling and do not have their own spouse or child living in the dwelling. Grandchildren living with their grandparent(s) but with no parents present also constitute a census family. 3

Children living in Census family

refers to a class which includes families that contain at least one child. To be included, children must live in the same household as the family, without a spouse, common-law partner or one or more of their children living in the same household. In a census family, they may be children by birth, marriage or adoption. In an economic family, foster children are also included. 3

Common-law

refers to whether the person aged 15 or over is living with a person of the opposite sex or of the same sex as a couple but is not legally married to that person. It includes situations where the members of such a couple are living apart temporarily because of illness, work or school.3

Condominium status

refers to whether the private dwelling is part of a condominium. A condominium is a residential complex in which dwellings are owned individually while land and common elements are held in joint ownership with others.

Couple families with children

refers to a class which includes families that contain a married or common-law couple with their children. A couple may be of opposite or same sex. 3

Divorced

refers to persons who have obtained a legal divorce and have not remarried. Those who live with a common-law partner are not included in this category. 3

Family structure

refers to the combination of relatives that comprise a family. Classification on this variable considers the presence or absence of: legally married spouses or common law partners; children; and, in the case of economic families, other relatives.

Family without children

refers to a class which includes families that do not contain any children. To be included, children must live in the same household as the family, without a spouse, common-law partner or one or more of their children living in the same household. In a census family, they may be children by birth, marriage or adoption. In an economic family, foster children are also included. 3

Household

refers to a person or group of persons who occupy the same dwelling and do not have a usual place of residence elsewhere in Canada or abroad. The dwelling may be either a collective dwelling or a private dwelling. The household may consist of a family group such as a census family, of two or more families sharing a dwelling, of a group of unrelated persons or of a person living alone. Household members who are temporarily absent on reference day are considered part of their usual household. 3

Household Tenure

Refers to whether the household owns or rents their private dwelling.The private dwelling may be situated on rented or leased land or be part of a condominium development.

A household is considered to own their dwelling if some member of the household owns the dwelling even if it is not fully paid for, for example if there is a mortgage or some other claim on it. A household is considered to rent their dwelling if no member of the household owns the dwelling.

A household is considered to rent that dwelling even if the dwelling is provided without cash rent or at a reduced rent, or if the dwelling is part of a cooperative.

For historical and statutory reasons, shelter occupancy on reserves does not lend itself to the usual classification by standard tenure categories. Therefore, a special category, band housing, has been created. 3

Lone-parent family

This class includes families containing only one parent with his or her child(ren). 3

Married

refers to both same-sex and opposite-sex couples who are legally married (and not separated or divorced), including persons in civil unions.3

Non-census family household

refers to a household containing one person, two persons (related or unrelated), or three or more persons (all related, some related, or none related). 3

One-family household

refers to a household containing a couple family (with or without children, with or without additional persons), or a lone parent family (male or female, with children, with or without additional persons). 3

Owner household

includes households where some member of the household owns their dwelling, even if it is still being paid for.

Person

refers to an individual and is the unit of analysis for most social statistics programmes. 3

Persons living alone

refers to a class which includes persons who live alone. 3

Persons living with non-relatives

refers to a class which includes persons who live in households with other persons, none of whom is related to them either by blood, marriage, common-law or adoption. 3

Persons living with relatives

refers to a class which includes persons who are not in a census family and who live in households where at least one of the other members of the household is related to them. Non-relatives may also be present in the household. 3

Separated

refers to persons currently legally married but who are no longer living with their spouse (for any reason other than illness, work or school) and have not obtained a divorce. Those who live with a common-law partner are not included in this category. 3

Shelter cost to income ratio

refers to the percentage of a household’s average total monthly income which is spent on shelter-related expenses. Those expenses include the monthly rent (for tenants) or the mortgage payment, property taxes and condominium fees (for owners) and the costs of electricity, heat, municipal services, etc.

Shelter cost

For owner households, shelter cost includes, where applicable, the mortgage payment, the costs of electricity, heat, water and other municipal services, property taxes and condominium fees. For tenant households, shelter cost includes, where applicable, the monthly rent and the costs of electricity, heat, water and other municipal services.

Single

refers to persons who have never been married. It also includes persons whose marriage has been legally annulled who were single before the annulled marriage and who have not remarried. Those who live with a common-law partner are not included in this category. 3

Size of household

refers to the number of persons residing in a private household. Collective households and households outside Canada are not included.

Subsidized housing

includes rent geared to income, social housing, public housing, government-assisted housing, non-profit housing, rent supplements and housing allowances.

Tenant household

includes households where no member of the household owns their dwelling. The dwelling is considered to be rented even if no cash rent is paid.

Two-or-more family household

refers to a household containing more than one family (see one-family household). 3

Value (owner estimated, market)

refers to the dollar amount expected by the owner if the asset were to be sold.
In the context of dwelling, it refers to the value of the entire dwelling, including the value of the land it is on and of any other structure, such as a garage, which is on the property. If the dwelling is located in a building which contains several dwellings, or a combination of residential and business premises, all of which the household owns, the value is estimated as a portion of the market value that applies only to the dwelling in which the household resides.

Widow

refers to a person who has lost their legally-married spouse through death and who has not remarried. Those who live with a common-law partner are not included in this category. 3

Demographics (Immigration, Culture, Ethnicity)

Aboriginal identity

refers to whether the person reported identifying with the Aboriginal peoples of Canada. This includes those who reported being an Aboriginal person, that is, First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuk (Inuit) and/or those who reported Registered or Treaty Indian status, that is registered under the Indian Act of Canada, and/or those who reported membership in a First Nation or Indian band. 3

Canadian Citizenship

This category includes persons who are citizens of Canada only and persons who are citizens of Canada and at least one other country. 3

Citizenship

refers to the country where the person has citizenship. A person may have more than one citizenship. A person may be stateless, that is, they may have no citizenship. Citizenship can be by birth or naturalization. 3

Ethnic origins

refers to the ethnic or cultural origins of the respondent’s ancestors. 3

Immigrant

refers to persons residing in Canada who were born outside of Canada, excluding temporary foreign workers, Canadian citizens born outside Canada and those with student or working visas. 3

Knowledge of languages

refers to languages in which the respondent can conduct a conversation. The knowledge of languages data are based on the respondent’s assessment of his or her ability to speak these languages. 3

Knowledge of official languages

refers to whether the person can conduct a conversation in English, French, in both or in neither language. For a child who has not yet learned to speak, this includes languages that the child is learning to speak at home.

Language spoken most often at home

refers to the language the person speaks most often at home at the time of data collection. A person can report more than one language as “spoken most often at home” if the languages are spoken equally often.

Mother tongue

refers to the first language learned at home in childhood and still understood by the individual on the date of the most recent census. 3

Multiple visible minorities

This category includes persons who gave more than one visible minority mark-in response (e.g. mark-in responses of Black and South Asian), and persons who gave only one visible minority mark-in response, but who also gave a write-in response classified as visible minority, n.i.e. 3

Non-Aboriginal Identity

This category includes persons who did not report being First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuk (Inuit), and also did not report Registered or Treaty Indian status or Membership in a First Nation or Indian band. 3

Non-Canadian Citizenship

This category includes persons who are not citizens of Canada. They may be citizens of one or more other countries. Persons who are stateless are included in this category.. 3

Non-immigrant

Refers to people who are Canadian-born or immigrants of third or higher generation. 3

Non-permanent resident

Refers to people from another country who, at the time of the census, held a Work or Study Permit, or who were refugee claimants, as well as family members living in Canada with them. 3

Not a visible minority

This category includes: persons who gave a mark-in response of “White” only; persons who reported being Aboriginal; persons who gave mark-in responses of “White and Latin American”, “White and Arab” or “White and West Asian” only with no write-in response classified as visible minority, n.i.e.; persons who gave a mark-in response of Latin American, Arab, or West Asian only, along with a European write-in response (e.g. French, German, Norwegian); and persons with no mark-in response who gave a write-in response that is not classified as a visible minority. 3

Official/non-official languages

Official languages refer to Canada’s official languages which are French and English. All other languages are considered non-official.

Persons without a religious affiliation

Persons without a religious connection or affiliation can self-identify as atheist, agnostic or humanist, or can provide another applicable response. 3

Recent Immigrant

Refers to persons who settled in Canada less than five years ago. 3

Religion

refers to the person’s self-identification as having a connection or affiliation with any religious denomination, group, body, sect, cult or other religiously defined community or system of belief. Religion is not limited to formal membership in a religious organization or group. 3

Visible minority

Refers to whether a person belongs to a visible minority group as defined by the Employment Equity Act and, if so, the visible minority group to which the person belongs. The Employment Equity Act defines visible minorities as “persons, other than Aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour”. 3

Demographics (Income & Housing)

Apartment 5 stories or more

refers to a dwelling unit in a high-rise apartment building which has five or more stories 3

Apartment under 5 stories

refers to a dwelling unit attached to other dwelling units, commercial units, or other non-residential space in a building that has fewer than five stories. 3

Domiciliary Hostels

refers to private or non-profit residences that assist adults to live in a sage and supportive community environment. Residents are typically living with psychiatric, developmental or physical illness and/or disability. 3

Duplex

refers to one of two dwellings, located one above the other, may or may not be attached to other dwellings or buildings. 3

Household

refers to a person or group of persons who occupy the same dwelling and do not have a usual place of residence elsewhere in Canada or abroad. The dwelling may be either a collective dwelling or a private dwelling. The household may consist of a family group such as a census family, of two or more families sharing a dwelling, of a group of unrelated persons or of a person living alone. Household members who are temporarily absent on reference day are considered part of their usual household. 3

Household after tax income

The after-tax income of a household is the sum of the after-tax incomes of all members of that household.. 3

Household income spent on shelter cost

Refers to the proportion of average monthly 2010 total household income which is spent on owner’s major payments (in the case of owner-occupied dwellings) or on gross rent (in the case of tenant-occupied dwellings). 3

Household size

refers to the number of persons residing in a private household. Collective households and households outside Canada are not included. 3

Household total income

The total income of a household is the sum of the total incomes of all members of that household. 3

Income Quintiles

The income quintile group provides a rough ranking of the economic situation of a person based on his or her relative position in the economic families adjusted after-tax income distribution. The population in private households is sorted according to its adjusted after-tax family income and then divided into 5 equal groups each containing 20% of the population.3

Long Term Care Homes

refers to places where seniors can live and receive support services. They are for seniors who need help with the activities of daily living, access to 24-hour nursing care or supervision in a secure setting. In general, Long-Term Care Homes offer higher levels of personal care and support than those typically offered by either retirement homes or supportive housing. 3

Low income after taxes

Income levels at which families or persons not in economic families spend 20 percentage points more than average of their after-tax income on food, shelter and clothing. 3

Movable dwelling

refers to a single dwelling, designed and constructed to be transported on its own chassis and capable of being moved to a new location on short notice. It may be placed temporarily on a foundation pad and may be covered by a skirt. 3

Private household

refers to a person or group of persons who occupy the same dwelling and do not have a usual place of residence elsewhere in Canada or abroad. The household universe is divided into two sub-universes on the basis of whether the household is occupying a collective dwelling or a private dwelling. The latter is a private household. 3

Resident after-tax income

Refers to total income from all sources minus federal, provincial and territorial income taxes paid for 2010. 3

Resident income status

Refers to the position of a person, economic family, person not in an economic family aged 15 years or over, or household in relation to one of the low income lines. 3

Retirement Homes

refers to a multi-residences housing facility intended for senior citizens. Typically each person or couple in the home has an apartment-style room or suite of rooms. Additional facilities are provided within the building. 3

Rooming Houses

refers to a licenses Rooming House is a principal dwelling that contains at least four rooming units available to be occupied for compensation. 3

Row house

refers to one of three or more dwellings joined side by side (or occasionally side to back), such as a townhouse or garden home, but not having any other dwellings either above or below. Townhouses attached to a high-rise building are also classified as row houses. 3

Semi-detached house

refers to one of two dwellings attached side by side (or back to back) to each other, but not attached to any other dwelling or structure (except its own garage or shed). A semi-detached dwelling has no dwellings either above it or below it, and the two units together have open space on all sides. 3

Single detached house

refers to a single dwelling not attached to any other dwelling or structure (except its own garage or shed). A single-detached house has open space on all sides, and has no dwellings either above it or below it. A mobile home fixed permanently to a foundation is also classified as a single-detached house. 3

Social and affordable housing unit

refers to housing built with the financial assistance of governments to provide assistance to low- and moderate-income households. The majority of these units receive ongoing operating subsidies and are owned and operated by non-profit housing providers and co-ops. 4

Total Income

Total of income from all sources, including employment income, income from government programs, pension income, investment income and any other money income. 3

Health of residents

Emergency visit rate for ACSC (Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions)

includes emergency room visits for certain chronic medical conditions, such as asthma, for which timely and appropriate care in primary care (e.g. a family doctor or nurse practitioner) can prevent an emergency department visit. Ambulatory care sensitive condition emergency room visits are influenced by income, geography, sex, and health factors such as having multiple conditions.

Hospitalization rate for ACSC (Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions)

refers to hospitalizations for certain chronic medical conditions, such as asthma, for which timely and appropriate care in primary care (e.g. a family doctor or nurse practitioner) can prevent a hospitalization. Ambulatory care sensitive condition hospitalizations are influenced by income, geography, sex, and health factors such as having multiple conditions.

ED visits for falls

refers to emergency department visits for falls that were unintentional. This measure is a part of unintentional injury emergency department visits.

ED visits for all unintentional injuries

refers to emergency department visits for injuries that were unintentional (e.g. slips, falls, traffic crashes).

Hospitalizations for falls

refers to hospitalizations for falls that were unintentional. This measure is a part of unintentional injury hospitalizations.

Hospitalizations for all unintentional injuries

refers to hospitalizations for injuries that were unintentional (e.g. slips, falls, traffic crashes).

Parks & Recreation

Baseball diamond

refers to baseball, softball and t-ball diamonds located in City of Ottawa parkland. 4

Basketball court

refers to all basketball courts located in City of Ottawa parkland. 4

Beach

refers to a municipally operated beach. 4

Bowling lawn

refers to all lawn bowling locations in City of Ottawa parkland. 4

Outdoor pool

refers to a municipally operated outdoor pool. 4

Outdoor rink

refers to an outdoor rink located in City of Ottawa parkland. 4

Outdoor wading pool

refers to a wading pool located in City of Ottawa parkland. 4

Park

refers to parkland within the City of Ottawa. 4

Path

refers to pathway links/through-block pedestrian walkways owned or maintained by the municipality. 4

Play structure

refers to any play structure located in City of Ottawa parkland. 4

Skateboard park

refers to a skateboard park located in City of Ottawa parkland. 4

Sledding hill

refers to a municipally approved sledding hill located in City of Ottawa parkland. 4

Splash pad

refers to a splash pad located in City of Ottawa parkland. 4

Sport field

refers to a sport designated parkland such as a football or soccer field. 4

Tennis court

refers to a tennis court located in City of Ottawa parkland. 4

Total Recreational sites

refers to all municipally administered recreational sites including baseball diamonds, basketball courts, beaches, bowling lawns, outdoor pools, outdoor wading pools, outdoor rinks, parks, paths, play structures, skateboard parks, sledding hills, splash pads, sport fields, tennis courts, and volleyball courts.

Volleyball court

refers to a volleyball court located in City of Ottawa parkland. 4

Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Socioeconomic status (SES) quintiles

A socioeconomic index developed from relevant indicators summarizes related aspects of socioeconomic status. The following variables were used to calculate this index:

  • percent of residents aged 24-65 with no high school degree or diploma
  • percent of residents living in low income (LIM-AT)
  • unemployment rate
  • percent of families that are lone-parent
  • average household income (after tax)
    –> A score of 1 indicates a more socio-economically advantaged neighbourhood, whereas a score of 5 indicates a least socio-economically advantaged neighbourhood

Walkability

Aesthetics

refers to interesting and pleasing things to look at while walking. Trees, parks, nicely kept houses, flowers and shrubs, lack of litter.

Pedestrian infrastructure and amenities

refers to the design of the environment that makes it conducive to walking. Pedestrian infrastructure refers to things such as sidewalks and bike lanes, and quality of these. Pedestrian amenities refer to facilities for pedestrian comfort: water fountains, benches, seats at bus stops and publicly available washrooms.

Safety from traffic

refers to walking spaces separated from traffic, traffic volume and noise, intersection safety, and streetlights.

Street visibility from houses

refers to houses being close to street, many windows looking out onto street. This is important for Pedestrian safety and comfort.

Walkability

refers to how friendly a neighbourhood is to pedestrians. Walkable neighbourhoods can increase physical activity and enhance social interaction and cohesion. They can also enhance the economic development of an area and increase safety. Scores on each walkability component compare one neighbourhood to all other neighbourhoods in Ottawa. An average score is 50. A higher score indicates better walkability. A score of 70 or above is excellent, and denotes that overall, the neighbourhood is doing better than most other neighbourhoods on that factor. A score of 30 or below means that the neighbourhood is below most other neighbourhoods on that factor and has lots of room for improvement.

Definition Sources

 1   Parenteau, M.P. (2008). Development of neighbourhoods to measure spatial indicators of health. URISA journal, 20 (2), pp. 43-55.
 2   derived from the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS)
 3   Statistics Canada
 4   City of Ottawa
 5   Coalition of Community Health and Resource Centres of Ottawa
 6   The Human Early Learning Partnership, University of British Colombia